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By Zaks J.

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Ring strain, as expected, made TNAZ thermally unstable 21 compared to HMX. 4) was observed as well as a sensitivity to ammonia; these may result from the C-NO2 cleavage pathway in which hydrogen transfer to the nitro group may assist in bond breakage [86]. - - N --NO2 O2N / 0 2N '1 NO2 ~-NO2 path 2 .! NO2 NO2 "T" 1 t B further reaction N --NO O2N N --NO 2 / NO2 I N --NO2 further reaction NO2 - - N --NO NO2 Figure 12 Proposed TNAZ Decomposition Routes The potential of using 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) as an insensitive high explosive was examined in the late 1980's [88-97].

The ring fragments were primarily [CxHyNz]+, in contrast to RDX and HMX which gave predominately oxygen-containing ions. Doyle attributed this to a number of structural differences between the cyclic nitramines and the caged nitramine--notably the C-C bond found in CL-20 and not the cyclic nitramines [70]. Brill also noted the difference in decomposition of the two cyclic nitramines and CL-20. Autocatalysis did not appear to play a major role. In the first 50% of decomposition, the predominate reaction was N-NO2 homolysis.

A second such accident a few months later (Brest, France) caused international limitations to be placed on the carbon-content of AN. A decade later, AN became the principle ingredient in most commercial explosive formulations, replacing the more hazardous dynamite almost entirely [ 11,117]. S. at the rate of over 5 bilfion pounds a year. There have been various attempts to use AN in military formulations. They have been unsuccessful because of the inability to control phase changes with accompanying density changes and because the relatively slow energy release of AN make it unsuitable for applications requiting metal penetration/fragmentation.

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6-Valent analogues of Eberhards theorem by Zaks J.

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