By Ive Marx
Social scientists, politicians, and economists have lately been fascinated with the concept the complex welfare states of Europe face a “New Social Question.” The middle proposal is that the transition from an commercial to a postindustrial setting has introduced with it a complete new set of social dangers, constraints, and trade-offs, which necessitate radical recalibration of social protection structures. a brand new Social query? analyzes that query intensive, with specific realization to the matter of source of revenue safety and the problems dealing with Bismarckian welfare states. it is going to be valuable interpreting for someone drawn to figuring out the way forward for eu social coverage.
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Extra resources for A New Social Question?: On Minimum Income Protection in the Postindustrial Era (Changing Welfare States Series)
3 Source: Belgian Socio-Economic Panel Survey. Most women who entered the labour market in the past 20 years actually succeeded in finding employment, including many of the low-skilled and even the lowest-skilled. 10 (which relates to women aged between 25 and 45), even among women who only received a primary education, employment rates went up fairly substantially. The figures stand in marked contrast to the perception and indeed my working hypothesis that there have been far too few job opportunities for the least-skilled in the labour market, and particularly for the least-skilled women – given the presumed breadwinner bias in labour market regulation, social security and taxation.
This measure of economic position is said to diverge from transitory events and phenomena, unlike current cash income and also from individual tastes for income relative to leisure. Net earnings capacity (nec) is designed to measure the potential of a family to generate an income stream (which can then be used to support its members) were it to use its human and physical capital to capacity. Individuals living in those households with the lowest levels of nec relative to their needs are considered to be the ‘truly poor’ (Garfinkel and Haveman 1977).
It is, after all, based on a quite rudimentary indicator of potential self-reliance. Pretransfer poverty is calculated on the basis of disposable household income minus replacement benefits (note that child benefits are taken into account in pre-transfer income as are not a replacement benefit). This is a simple calculation that does not take into account possible behavioural responses. If social security were non-existent, people would pay less in social contributions and taxes, which would translate into a higher pretransfer income.
A New Social Question?: On Minimum Income Protection in the Postindustrial Era (Changing Welfare States Series) by Ive Marx