By Gabor Forgacs, Stuart A. Newman
In the course of improvement cells and tissues endure adjustments in trend and shape that hire a much wider diversity of actual mechanisms than at the other time in an organism's existence. This ebook demonstrates how physics can be utilized to investigate those organic phenomena. Written to be available to either biologists and physicists, significant phases and elements of the organic improvement procedure are brought after which analyzed from the point of view of physics. The presentation of actual versions calls for no arithmetic past uncomplicated calculus.
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Additional resources for Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo
The mathematical description of viscoelasticity is rather complicated. We will deal with it, in a somewhat simpliﬁed manner, later, where it is relevant to understanding certain developmental phenomena. (For a comprehensive discussion of viscoelasticity in biological materials, see Fung, 1993). Perspective Basic, ‘‘generic” physical mechanisms can provide insight into many processes that occur within and between living cells. It is essential to recognize, however, that neither cytoplasm nor multicellular aggregates are the sort of ‘‘ideal” materials that physics excels in describing.
The parameter E is the Young’s modulus of the rod’s material; its unit is the pascal, Pa. Even though Eqs. 7 are deﬁned for a linear body, one can deﬁne an elastic modulus for any biological material. Its value would be determined, for example, by simply stretching a piece of such material with known force in some direction and measuring the original length and the deformation in the same direction. The cross-sectional area then is measured perpendicular to the direction of the force. (For nonisotropic materials, the stiffness varies with direction).
As we have seen, however, it is possible to build a certain amount of complexity into a physical representation and come closer to capturing biological reality. This can be achieved by deﬁning ‘‘effective” physical parameters, which incorporate the complexity of the biological system, and using them in the same equations and relationships that their standard counterparts obey. Typically, the validity of such equations cannot be deduced from ﬁrst principles and must be checked experimentally. The effectiveness of studying living systems using physics, therefore, will often lie in establishing analogies rather than equivalences between complex biological phenomena and well-understood processes in the inanimate world.
Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo by Gabor Forgacs, Stuart A. Newman