By Dr. P. H. Francis-West, Dr. L. Robson, Dr. Darell J. R. Evans (auth.)
ISBN-13: 9783642555701The molecular cascades that keep an eye on craniofacial improvement have till lately been little understood. The paucity of knowledge that exists has partially been as a result complexity of the pinnacle, that's a different, and doubtless essentially the most complicated areas of the physique. besides the fact that, the iteration of mouse mutants, the id of gene mutations that reason human craniofacial syndromes, including classical embryological ways in different species has now given major perception into how the top develops. those experiences have emphasised how precise the pinnacle really is with each one person half ruled by means of a unique set of signalling interactions, back demonstrating the complexity of this sector of the physique.
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Extra resources for Craniofacial Development The Tissue and Molecular Interactions That Control Development of the Head
The related factor Pax3 is required for migration of cardiac neural crest, and loss-of-function is associated with an upregulation of the chondroitin sulphate molecule, versican (Epstein et al. 1993,2000; Conway et al. 1997a,b; Henderson et al. 1997). Pax3 is also thought to be important for the generation of neural crest cells, which will also be a contributory factor to the cardiac defects seen in Splotch mice (Conway et al. 2000). In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that excess RA inhibits neural crest migration, and in the chick, migrating cranial neural crest cells express the retinoid receptor RARP suggesting that they are the direct targets of RA signalling (Rowe et al.
The transcriptional mediators include slug and snail, sox9, Id2, together with members of the FoxD and Zic families (Nieto et al. 1994; Martinsen and BronnerFraser 1998; Sefton et al. 1998; Hromas et al. 1999; Barembaum et al. 2000; Deardorff et al. 2001; Pohl and Knochel 2001; Tan et al. 2001; Spokony et al. 2002). The role of these genes has been inferred by overexpression or functional ablation studies, and all have been proposed to have a role in the establishment of the premigratory neural crest precursors.
These effects will in part account for the teratogenic effect of excess RA, which results in craniofacial abnormalities. 1994; Mendelsohn et al. 1994a,b; Luo et al. 1997; Dupe et al. 1999). 4 Proliferation and Survival Several factors that control survival of the migrating and post-migratory neural crest have been identified. These include serotonin, Shh, Bmps, Fgfs, endothelin-l, PDGF, and a5-integrin (Moiseiwitsch and Lauder 1995; Choi et al. 1997; Goh et al. 1997; Soriano 1997; also see Sect.
Craniofacial Development The Tissue and Molecular Interactions That Control Development of the Head by Dr. P. H. Francis-West, Dr. L. Robson, Dr. Darell J. R. Evans (auth.)