By Dirk Hofäcker, Moritz Hess, Stefanie König
To a backdrop of growing old societies, pension crises and labour industry reforms, this publication investigates how the coverage shift from early retirement to lively getting older has affected person retirement behaviour. concentrating on 11 ecu nations, the U.S. and Japan, it brings jointly top foreign specialists to research fresh adjustments in pension platforms. Their findings exhibit that there was a basic transition in pension rules and a steep elevate in older staff’ retirement a long time and employment premiums. but alterations in retirement habit usually are not calmly disbursed throughout all societal strata. This increases the intense drawback that an total upward thrust within the retirement age should be followed by means of the re-emergence of social inequality within the transition from paintings to retirement. This leading edge edited assortment will entice scholars and students of sociology, economics, political technological know-how, human assets administration, gerontology and social coverage, and likewise to policy-makers and pros facing older staff.
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Additional info for Delaying Retirement: Progress and Challenges of Active Ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan
In contrast, older individuals in the Czech Republic prefer to retire earlier at age 60, whereas women expect to retire even earlier. 33 Source: European Social Survey (2014), own calculations. No data for Austria, Italy, Japan, and the USA 44 S. König et al. countries where expected retirement age is low, gendered differences are high. This is probably due to the still persistent gender differences in formal retirement ages (see Sect. 1). At the same time, it is notable that in all countries under study, at least the average preferred retirement age still falls short of the politically envisioned target of retirement at age 65.
Owing to the educational expansion within the last decades, younger individuals have a higher proportion of tertiary education than older individuals. However, the degree to which educational attainment levels differ between age groups shows a strong cross-national variation. One notable finding is that absolute educational attainment among older workers does not seem to correlate strongly with low inter- age-group differences in educational attainment. In fact, among the countries with a high absolute degree of tertiary education, it is only the USA and (to a lesser extent) Estonia that exhibit only minor age- group differences.
Labor force (net) exits are estimated by taking the difference in the participation rate for each 5-year age group (40 and over) at the beginning of the period and the rate for the corresponding age group aged 5 years older at the end of the period. The official age corresponds to the age at which a pension can be received irrespective of whether a worker has a long insurance record of years of contributions (OECD 2013a). 1 0 2010 33 2 Trends and Determinants of Retirement Transition in Europe ES full Fig.
Delaying Retirement: Progress and Challenges of Active Ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan by Dirk Hofäcker, Moritz Hess, Stefanie König